Social capitals and earthquake: A Study of different districts of Tehran, Iran

Authors

  • Maryam Zareian Road, Housing and Urban Development Research Center (BHRC)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18485/ijdrm.2023.5.2.2

Keywords:

Social capital, Tehran, earthquake, Iran

Abstract

Earthquakes occur suddenly and cause much physical and socioeconomic damage, especially in less developed countries. Many studies and strategies related to earthquake management in Iran emphasize the physical-based infrastructure, such as National Building Regulations or planning to renovate existing buildings. However, the relevance of social factors has been widely neglected. Addressing this gap, the present paper argues that social capital can play a vital role in different stages of natural disasters, such as preparedness, response, and recovery. Focusing on Tehran, that due to urban decay and geological fault lines is highly earthquake-prone, this study used secondary analysis to examine the data obtained from large cross-sectional studies conducted by Tehran Municipality in 2010 on social capital survey in Tehran and 2017 on quality of life in Tehran The present study is descriptive-analytical and applied research. Univariate analysis including measures of central tendency and dispersion was used to achieve the objectives of this research. The analyzed data show that four urban districts in Tehran (3, 21, 13, 4) have low bonding social capital, while the others have moderate bonding social capital. Moreover, four districts (9, 16, 19, 12) have very low bridging social capital, and the rest of the 22 districts have low bridging social capital. Demonstrating the relevance of social capital for preparing and supporting vulnerable communities during natural disasters, this study suggests social policies that would increase social cohesion, enhance generalized trust and strengthen social networks. 

References

Abunyewah, M., Erdiaw-Kwasie, M. O., Okyere, S. A., Thayaparan, G., Byrne, M., Lassa, J., Zander, K. K., Fatemi, M. N.,& Maund, K. (2023) Influence of personal and collective social capital on flood preparedness and community resilience: Evidence from Old Fadama, Ghana, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction,Volume 94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103790

Aldrich, D. P. (2010). Fixing recovery, social capital in post-crisis resilience. Journal of Homeland Security, 6, 1-10.

Aldrich, D. P. (2012a). Building resilience: Social capital in post-disaster recovery. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Allen M. (2013) Deconstructing 'Resilience' in the aftermath of disasters in Australia, The Senshu Soc Capital Rev 4, https://www.senshu-u.ac.jp/scapital/pdf/04matthew,sscr4.pdf.

Bourdieu, P. (1986) ‘The forms of capital’. In J.G. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Theory for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, Westport, CT. pp. 241–258.

Coleman, J.S. (1988) "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital". The American Journal of Sociology, No. 94, p 95-120. http://econ2.econ.iastate.edu/classes/crp274/swenson/CRP566/Readings/Coleman_Social%20Capital%20in%20the%20Creation%20of%20Human%20Capital.pdf

Cutter, S.L., Barnes L., Berry M., Burton C, Evans E., Tate E., & Webb J. )2008(. "Community and Regional Resilience: Perspectives from Hazards Disasters, and Emergency Management." CARRI Research Report 1. Oak Ridge: Community and Regional Resilience Institute.

Dukiya, J. J., & Benjamine, O. (2021). Building resilience through local and international partnerships, Nigeria experiences. International Journal of Disaster Risk Management, 3(2), 11-24.

Dynes, R. (2005) Community Social Capital as the Primary Basis of Resilience. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center Preliminary Paper. https://udspace.udel.edu/bitstream/handle/19716/1621/PP%20344.pdf?sequence=1.

Dynes, R. (2006). Social capital: Dealing with community emergencies. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(2), 1-26.

Elliott, J., Haney, T., & Sams-Abiodun, P. (2010). Limits to social capital: Comparing network assistance in two New Orleans neighbours devastated by Hurricane Katrina. Sociological Quarterly, 51, 624-648. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/James-Elliott-6/publication/47402528_Limits_To_Social_Capital_Comparing_Network_Assistance_in_Two_New_Orleans_Neighborhoods_Devastated_by_Hurricane_Katrina/links/5f3e7861299bf13404d3db15/Limits-To-Social-Capital-Comparing-Network-Assistance-in-Two-New-Orleans-Neighborhoods-Devastated-by-Hurricane-Katrina.pdf?_sg%5B0%5D=started_experiment_milestone&origin=journalDetail&_rtd=e30%3D

Garrison, M. B., & Sasser, D. D. (2009). Families and disasters: Making meaning out of adversity. Lifespan perspectives on natural disasters: Coping with Katrina, Rita, and other storms, 113-130.

Geys, B., & Murdoch, Z. (2010). Measuring the ‘bridging versus ‘bonding’nature of social networks: A proposal for integrating existing measures. Sociology, 44(3), 523-540.

Hausman, A., Hanlon, A., & Seals, B. (2007). Social capital as a mediating factor in emergency preparedness and concerns about terrorism. Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 1073-1083. doi:10.1002/jcop.20203

Hawkins, R., & Maurer, K. (2010). Bonding, bridging and linking: How social capital operated in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 1777-1793. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcp087

Heller, K., Alexander, D. B., Gatz, M., Knight, B. G., & Rose, T. (2005). Social and personal factors as predictors of earthquake preparation: The role of support provision, network discussion, negative affect, age, and education. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(2), 399-422.

Hurlbert, J., Haines, V., & Beggs, J. (2000). Core networks and tie activation: What kinds of routine networks allocated resources in nonroutine situations? American Sociological Review, 65, 598-618.

James, H. (2012). Social capital, resilience and transformation among vulnerable groups in the Burmese delta after Cyclone Nargis. ARC Discovery Project on" Demographic Consequences of Asian Disasters: Family Dynamics, Social Capital and Migration Patterns'(p. na). na: The Australian National University.

JICA - Japan International Cooperation Agency; (2000) Greater Tehran Seismic Zoning Project. Crisis Management Organization, Tehran

Kawachi, I., Kim, D., Coutts, A., & Subramanian, S. V. (2004). Commentary: Reconciling the three accounts of social capital. International journal of epidemiology, 33(4), 682-690.

Kilduff, M., Tsai, W., & Hanke, R.( 2006) A Paradigm Too Far? A Dynamic Stability Reconsideration of the Social Network Research Program. The Academy of Management Review, 31(4): 1031-1048.Feb; 60(2): 116–122.

Kim, D., Subramanian, V., & Kawachi, I. (2006) Bonding versus bridging social capital and their associations with self-rated health: a multilevel analysis of 40 US communities, J Epidemiol Community Health. 60(2): 116–122.

Koh, H. & Cadigan, R. (2008). Disaster Preparedness and Social Capital. In: Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S., Kim, D. (eds) Social Capital and Health. Springer, New York.

Kwok A., Doyle E., Becker J, Johnston D. & Paton D. (2016). What is ‘social resilience’? Perspectives of disaster researchers, emergency management practitioners, and policymakers in New Zealand. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 19, 197-211.

Kyne, D., & Aldrich, D. P. (2020). Capturing bonding, bridging, and linking social capital through publicly available data. Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 11(1), 61-86.

Lietaer, B. (2004) Complementary currencies in Japan today: History, originality and relevance. International Journal of Community Currency Research, 8, 1-23.

Mano, R., A, K., & Rapaport, C. (2019). Earthquake preparedness: A Social Media Fit perspective to accessing and disseminating earthquake information. International Journal of Disaster Risk Management, 1(2), 19-31.

Municipality of Tehran (2016). Atlas of Urban Quality of Life in Tehran Metropolis, Tehran, Shirkat Pardazish va Barnamahʹrizi Shahr.

Nakagawa, Y., & Shaw, R. (2004). Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22, 5-34.

Norris, F., Friedman, M., Watson, P., Byrne, C., Diaz, E. & Kaniasty, K. (2002).60,000 disaster victims speak: Part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981-2001. Psychiatry, 65, 207-239.

Oldenburg, R. (1999). The great good place: Cafes, coffee shops, bookstores, bars, hair salons, and other hangouts at the heart of a community (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Marlowe.

Panday, S., Rushton, S., Karki, J., Balen, J., & Barnes, A. (2021). The role of social capital in disaster resilience in remote communities after the 2015 Nepal earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 55, 102112.

Peacock, W., Brody, S., Seitz, W., Merrell, W., Vedlitz, A., Zahran, S., & Sticknew, R. (2010). Advancing the resilience of coastal localities: Developing, implementing, and sustaining the use of coastal resilience indicators. Washington, DC: Coastal Services Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Poortinga, W. (2012) Community resilience and health: The role of bonding, bridging, and linking aspects of social capital, Health & Place,Volume 18, Issue 2,286-295

Poteyeva M, Denver M, Barsky L, & Aguirre B.(2007) Search and Rescue Activities in Disasters. In: Rodríguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR, editors. Handbook of Disaster Research. New York: Springer; pp. 200–216.

Richey, S. (2007). Manufacturing trust: Community currencies and the creation of social capital. Political Behavior, 29, 69-88.

Sherrieb, K., Norris, F. H., & Galea, S. (2010). Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience. Social Indicators Research, 99, 227-247.

Small, M. (2010). Unanticipated gains: Origins of network inequality in everyday life. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Szreter, S., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology

Tehran Municipality (2019) Tehran Atlas, Tehran.

Tse, C., Wei, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). Social capital and disaster recovery: Evidence from Sichuan earthquake in 2008. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

Van S., Knorringa I., & Knorringa P. (2007) “Unpacking Social Capital in Economic Development: How Social Relations Matter.” Review of Social Economy,65(1):107–35.

Villalonga, O. , & Ichiro K. (2015). The measurement of social capital, Gaceta Sanitaria, 29 (1), 62-64

Widén-Wulff, G.& et al. (2008). Information Behaviour Meets Social Capital: A Conceptual Model. Journal of Information Science 34(3): 346–55.

Downloads

Published

2023-12-31

How to Cite

Zareian, M. (2023). Social capitals and earthquake: A Study of different districts of Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Disaster Risk Management, 5(2), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.18485/ijdrm.2023.5.2.2