Examining Stakeholder Participation in Social Stability Risk Assessment for Mega Projects using Network Analysis
The paper examines stakeholder participation of social stability risk assessment for mega projects in China from a network perspective, with participatory decision-making in a political system discussed. From this analysis, we developed and tested hypotheses on stakeholder participation in social stability risk assessment. Using data obtained through content analysis, we established network on each compulsory procedure in social stability risk assessment to test the hypotheses. Additional impactful factors were discussed using singular value decomposition method in the study. We also provided practical implications and suggestions for policy and practice in the article.
Aaltonen, K., Kujala, J., Lehtonen, P., & Ruuska, I. (2010). A stakeholder network perspective on unexpected events and their management in international projects. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 3(4), 564-588.
Abbasi, A. & Kapucu, N. (2016). A Longitudinal Study of Emerging Networks in Response to Natural Disasters. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 22(1), 47-70.
Bardach, E. (1998). Getting agencies to work together: The practice and theory of managerial craftmanship. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Beierle, T. C. (2002). The quality of stakeholder-based decisions. Risk Analysis, 22(4), 739-749.
Blackstock, K. L., Kelly, G. J., & Horsey, B. L. (2007). Developing and applying a framework to evaluate participatory research for sustainability. Ecological Economics, 60(4), 726-742.
Blomquist, W., Dinar, A., & Kemper, K. E. (2010). A framework for institutional analysis of decentralization reforms in natural resource management. Society & Natural Resources, 23(7), 620-635.
Borgatti, S. P., & Everett, M. G. (1997). Network analysis of 2-mode data. Social Networks, 19(3), 243-269.
Borgatti, S. P., & Everett, M. G. (2000). Models of core/periphery structures. Social Networks, 21(4), 375-395.
Borgatti, S.P., Everett, M.G., & Freeman, L.C. (2012). Analyzing Social Networks. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Brody, S. D. (2003). Measuring the effects of stakeholder participation on the quality of local plans based on the principles of collaborative ecosystem management. Journal of Planning Education & Research, 22(4), 407-419.
Bruce, J. W., Knox, A., Sikor, T., & Müller, D. (2009). Structures and stratagems: making decentralization of authority over land in africa cost-effective. World Development, 37(8), 1360-1369.
Brunsting, S., Best-Waldhober, M. D., Feenstra, C. F. J., & Mikunda, T. (2011). Stakeholder participation practices and onshore CCS: lessons from the Dutch CCS case Barendrecht. Energy Procedia, 4(1), 6376-6383.
Bryson, J.M., Crosby, B.C., & Stone, M.M. (2015). Designing and implementing cross-sector collaborations: Needed and challenging. Public Administration Review, 75(5), 647-663.
Cameron, B. G., Crawley, E. F., Loureiro, G., & Rebentisch, E. S. (2008). Value flow mapping: using networks to inform stakeholder analysis. Acta Astronautica, 62(4-5), 324-333.
Chase, L.C., Decker, D.J., & Lauber, T.B. (2004). Public participation in wildlife management: what do stakeholders want? Society & Natural Resources, 17, 629-639.
Chess, C., & Purcell, K. (1999). Public participation and the environment: do we know what works? Environmental Science & Technology, 33(16), 2685-2692.
Diehl, E., & Sterman, J. D. (1995). Effects of feedback complexity on dynamic decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62, 198–215.
Dong, L. (2011, April 22). Optimizing mechanism of social stability risk assessment. People’s Daily. p.3 (in Chinese).
Easton, D. (1957). An approach to the analysis of political systems. World Politics, 9(3), 383-400.
Easton, D. (1979). A System Analysis of Political Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Edwards, W. (1962). Dynamic decision theory and probabilistic information processing. Human Factors, 4, 59–73.
Erkul, M., Yitmen, I., & Celik, T. (2016). Stakeholder engagement in mega transport infrastructure projects. Procedia Engineering, 161, 704-710.
Estrella, M., & Gaventa, J. (2000). Who counts reality? Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation: a literature review. IDS Working Paper 70, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton.
Fazey, I., Kesby, M., Evely, A., Latham, I., Wagatora, D., & Hagasua, J. E. (2010). A three-tiered approach to participatory vulnerability assessment in the Solomon Islands. Global Environmental Change, 20(4), 713–728.
Fiorino, D. J. (1990). Citizen participation and environmental risk: a survey of institutional mechanisms. Science Technology & Human Values, 15(2), 226-243.
Gattringer, R., Hutterer, P., & Strehl, F. (2014). Network-structured university-industry-collaboration: values for the stakeholders. European Journal of Innovation Management, 17(3), 272 - 291.
General Office of Chinese Communist Party Central Committee (2015). Guidance on Improving Mechanisms of SSRA. Retrieved on April, 13, 2015 from http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2015/content_2847873.htm.
Gunderson, L., & Holling, C.S. (2002). Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Washington: Island Press.
Harshaw, H. W., & Tindall, D. B. (2005). Social structure, identities, and values: a network approach to understanding people's relationships to forests. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(4), 426-449.
Hu, Q., Knox, C. C., & Kapucu, N. (2014). What have we learned since September 11, 2001? A network study of the Boston marathon bombings response. Public Administration Review, 74(6), 698-712.
Johnson, N., Lilja, N., Ashby, J.A., & Garcia, J.A., (2004). Practice of participatory research and gender analysis in natural resource management. Natural Resources Forum, 28(28), 189-200.
Kapucu, N., & Garayev, V. (2011). Collaborative decision-making in emergency and crisis management. International Journal of Public Administration, 34(6), 366-375.
Kapucu, N., Hu, Q., & Khosa, S. (2014). The state of network research in public administration. Administration & Society, 0095399714555752 (ahead of print).
Kleinmuntz, D. N. (1985). Cognitive heuristics and feedback in a dynamic decision environment. Management Science, 31(6), 680-702.
Kleinmuntz, D. N., & Schkade, D. A. (1993). Information displays and decision processes. Psychological Science, 4(4), 221-227.
Koontz, T. M. (2005). We finished the plan, so now what? Impacts of collaborative stakeholder participation on land use policy. Policy Studies Journal, 33(3), 459–481.
Koppenjan, J., & Klijn, E. H. (2010). Managing Uncertainties in Networks: a Network Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making. London: Routledge.
Larson, A. M., Pacheco, P., Toni, F., & Vallejo, M. (2007). The effects of forestry decentralization on access to livelihood assets. Journal of Environment & Development, 16(3), 251-268.
Larson, A. M., & Soto, F. (2008). Decentralization of natural resource governance regimes. Environment and Resources, 33(33), 213-239.
Lawrence, A. (2006). “No personal motive?” volunteers, biodiversity, and the false dichotomies of participation. Ethics Place & Environment, 9(3), 279-298.
Lawrence, S. V., & Martin, M. F. (2012). Understanding China's political system. Current Politics & Economics of South Southeastern & Central Asia, 20(3), 1191-1195.
Li, T. H. Y., Ng, S. T., & Skitmore, M. (2012a). Conflict or consensus: an investigation of stakeholder concerns during the participation process of major infrastructure and construction projects in Hong Kong. Habitat International, 36(2), 333-342.
Li, T. H., Ng, S. T., & Skitmore, M. (2012b). Public participation in infrastructure and construction projects in China: From an EIA-based to a whole-cycle process. Habitat International, 36(1), 47-56 (in Chinese).
Li, W., Liu, J., & Li, D. (2012c). Getting their voices heard: Three cases of public participation in environmental protection in China. Journal of Environmental Management, 98(1), 65-72.
Liao, X., & Liu, B. (2016). The dilemma and regulation of social stability risk assessment in major policy decisions—a study based on the short-lived medical reform in Chongqing. Chinese Public Administration, (1):27-36 (in Chinese).
Liu, S. (2016). Problems in current social stability risk assessment. Modern Information on Economy, 24, 77-78 (in Chinese).
Liu, Y., Li, Y., Xi, B., & Koppenjan, J. (2016a). A governance network perspective on environmental conflicts in China: findings from the Dalian paraxylene conflict. Policy Studies, 37(4), 314-331.
Liu, Z. Z., & Li, W. J. (2013). National risk management structural framework in perspective of China social stability risk assessment. In Proceedings of 2013 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services (pp. 330-334). Washington DC, U.S.: IEEE Computer Society.
Liu, Z. Z., Zhu, Z. W., Wang, H. J., & Huang, J. (2016b). Handling social risks in government-driven mega project: an empirical case study from west China. International Journal of Project Management, 34(2), 202-218.
Lu, W. (2016). The social stability risk assessment of tuition adjustment in Guangdong public universities. Chinese Public Administration, (1): 23-26 (in Chinese).
Ma, B., & Du, P. (2014). Topics and methods in social stability risk assessment for major decision making. Journal Harbin Institute of Technology, 16(1), 35-40 (in Chinese).
Mackinnon, A. J., & Wearing, A. J. (1985). Systems analysis and dynamic decision making. Acta Psychologica, 58, 159–172.
Marks, R. (2008). Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation, 141(10), 2417-2431.
Marin, B., & Mayntz, R. (eds) (1991). Policy Networks: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations. Colorado: Westview Press.
Marsh, D., & Rhodes, R.A.W. (eds) (1992). Policy Networks in British Government. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mazmanian, D.A., & Nienaber, J. (1979). Can Organizations Change? Washington, DC: Brookings Institution,.
Mertha, A. (2009). Fragmented Authoritarianism 2.0: Political Pluralization in the Chinese Policy Process. The China Quarterly, 200, 995–1012.
Middendorf, G., & Busch, L. (1997). Inquiry for the public good: democratic participation in agricultural research. Agriculture & Human Values, 14(14), 45-57.
Moore, A., & Warren, A. (2006). Legal advocacy in environmental public participation in China: raising the stakes and strengthening stakeholders. China Environment Series, 8, 3-23.
O’Toole, L.J. (1997). Treating networks seriously: practical and research-based agendas in public administration. Public Administration Review, 57(1), 45-52.
Olander, S. (2007). Stakeholder impact analysis in construction project management. Construction Management and Economics, 25(3), 277-287.
Pira, M. L., Inturri, G., Ignaccolo, M., Pluchino, A., & Rapisarda, A. (2016). Finding shared decisions in stakeholder networks: an agent-based approach. Physica A Statistical Mechanics & Its Applications,466, 277–287.
Poetz, A. (2011). What's your “position” on nuclear power? an exploration of conflict in stakeholder participation for decision-making about risky technologies. Risk Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 2(2), 1-38.
Pohlner, H. (2016). Institutional change and the political economy of water megaprojects: china’s south-north water transfer. Global Environmental Change, 38, 205–216.
Prell, C., Hubacek K., & Reed, M. (2009). Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource management. Society & Natural Resources, 22(6), 501-518.
Reed, M. S. (2007). Participatory technology development for agro-forestry extension: an innovation-decision approach. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(8), 334-341.
Reed, M. S. (2008). Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation, 141(10), 2417-2431.
Reed, M. S., Dougill, A. J., & Taylor, M. J. (2007). Integrating local and scientific knowledge for adaptation to land degradation: Kalahari rangeland management options. Land Degradation & Development, 18(3), 249–268.
Reed, M. S., Fraser, E. D. G., & Dougill, A. J. (2006). An adaptive learning process for developing and applying sustainability indicators with local communities. Ecological Economics, 59(4), 406-418.
Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. J. (2000). Public participation methods: a framework for evaluation. Science Technology & Human Values, 25(1), 3-29.
Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. J. (2004a). Evaluating public-participation exercises: a research agenda. Science Technology & Human Values, 29(4), 512-556.
Rowe, G., & Frewer, L. J. (2004b). Evaluation of a deliberative conference. Science Technology & Human Values, 29(1), 88-121.
Sequeira, D. (2010). Stakeholder Engagement : A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets. Washington, DC: International Finance Corporation.
Shen, Q. (2014). A comparative analysis of social stability risk assessment and public-participated investigation of EIA. Environment & Development, 15(1), 41-43(in Chinese).
Stewart, T. R., Dennis, R. L., & Ely, D. W. (1984). Citizen participation and judgment in policy analysis: a case study of urban air quality policy. Policy Sciences, 17(1), 67-87.
Smith, L. G., Nell, C. Y., & Prystupa, M. V. (1997). Forum: the converging dynamics of interest representation in resources management. Environmental Management, 21(2), 139-146.
Sultana, P., & Abeyasekera, S. (2008). Effectiveness of participatory planning for community management of fisheries in Bangladesh. Journal of Environmental Management, 86(1), 201-13.
Tan, R., & Zhou, T. (2015). Decentralization in a centralized system: project-based governance for land-related public goods provision in China. Land Use Policy, 47, 262-272.
Tatenhove, J. P. M. V., & Leroy, P. (2003). Environment and participation in a context of political modernization. Environmental Values, 12(2), 155-174.
Thabrew, L., & Ries, R. (2009). Application of life cycle thinking in multidisciplinary multi-stakeholder contexts for cross-sectoral planning and implementation of sustainable development projects. Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management, 5(3), 445–460.
Wandersman, A. (1981). A framework of participation in community organizations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 17(1), 27-58.
Weber, E. P., & Khademian, A. M. (2008). Wicked problems, knowledge challenges, and collaborative capacity builders in network settings. Public Administration Review, 68(2), 334-349.
Xu, W. (2013). The current problems existing in social stability risk assessment. Studies on Local Finance, 8(12), 16-20 (in Chinese).
Yang, K., & Pandey, S. K. (2011). Further dissecting the black box of citizen participation: when does citizen involvement lead to good outcomes? Public Administration Review, 71(6), 880-892.
Zhang, L., & Tong, X. (2015). Social stability risk assessment of major policy decision: the problem, response and improvement. Jiangsu Social Sciences, 4, 7-16 (in Chinese).
Zheng, H., Jong, M. D., & Koppenjan, J. (2010). Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform. Public Administration, 88(2), 398-417.
Zhu, D. (2012). Policy gap, risk origin and social stability risk assessment. Comparative Economic & Social Systems, 2(5): 20-23 (in Chinese).
Zhu, Z. W., Li, W. J., & Zhao, X. X. (2014). Research on the affecting factors of public participation willingness in social stability risk evaluation. Journal of Xian Jiaotong University, 34(2), 49-55(in Chinese).
International Journal of Disaster Risk Management (IJDRM) allows authors to deposit publisher's version/PDF in an institutional repository, research gate, Academia.edu, and non-commercial subject-based repositories, or to publish it on Author's personal website (including social networking sites) and/or departmental website, at any time after publication in compliance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial – NoDerrivatives 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). The Publisher's copyright and source must be acknowledged and a link must be made to the article's DOI (HTML link).